* Part of a U.S. wolf recovery      program since 1973 when        last five wild members                captured for an emergency      breeding program to prevent extinction

* Canis rufus is not a subspecies of Gray Wolf but is a separate        wolf species

* Exists only in a reintroduced population in eastern North                Carolina

* Less than 150 wolves (no more than 50 are mature individuals)

* Listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

* U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service halted the Red Wolf recovery            program in 2015 to "rebuild trust" with program's opponents      and to investigate the effectiveness and impact of the                        program after numerous Red Wolves went missing and were        shot and killed 

* Also known as Algonquin Wolf

* Not a subspecies of Gray Wolf

* It's taxonomy is under debate

* Current distribution thought to      be restricted to central Ontario        and southwestern Quebec

* Most within or surrounding                Algonquin Park




* Controlled releases in Arizona & New Mexico since 1998

* Classified as Endangered within the Endangered Species Act              (ESA) but have differences from standard ESA regulations

* Limits placed in their expansion of territory size

* Limit to breed & grow wild population to maximum 325 wolves

* Property owners have right to kill them if attacking domestic              livestock or pets

* Can also be killed if create "unacceptable impacts to ungulates"

Worldwide Gray Wolf Population

Information below for 2014 courtesy San Diego Zoo Global Library


​​Designated as Least Concern by Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe

Population viability non-uniform across the EU

  • Critically Endangered

                   - Germany, western Poland

  • Endangered

                   - Western-Central Alps, Scandinavia

  • Near Threatened

                   - Iberia, Finland, Russian Karelia

  • Vulnerable

                   - Italian peninsula

Protected by the Bern Convention (Appendix II)

Protected under the EU Habitats Directive, with the following exceptions:

  • Spain

                   - considered a game species north of the Duero River

  • Greece

                   - north of 39 degree N. latitude

  • Finland

                   - differential treatment based on their occurrence in reindeer herding areas

  • Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)

                   - harvested under HD Appendix V

  • Romania

                   - hunting quotas

​Fully protected in Norway


The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists Canis lupus as "Least Concern"


Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Appendix I (populations of Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan) and Appendix II

Appendix I

  • Species that are threatened with extinction

Appendix II

  • Species that aren't necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled

British Columbia wolf, Photo Source: PacificWild

Rocky Mountain Gray Wolf photo by Jorge Alvarez

Information below courtesy International Wolf Center


Canada supports the second largest Gray Wolf population in the world, after Russia

  • Gray Wolf is a game species in most of Canada
  • Approximately 10.5 to 12.3 percent of Canada's wolf population is harvested annually
  • ​The "Algonquin" or Eastern Wolf is protected, listed as a Species of Special Concern under Canada's Species At Risk Act (SARA)

Information below courtesy Defenders of Wildlife


Gray Wolves are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are considered endangered in the continental United States with the exceptions below:

  • Alaska
  • Northern Rockies

                   - Idaho, Montana, parts of Washington, Oregon, Utah, Wyoming

  • ​Great Lakes

​                   - Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin

Indian Wolf, Canis lupus pallipes

Photo: Robin Silver Photography


Eastern Wolf photo by Michael Runtz

Worldwide Wolf Protection Status

* Designated Critically Endangered on          The IUCN Red List of Threatened                  Species

Dawn Villella / Associated Press

* Minimum population of 235 mature individuals appears stable

* Protected under the federal Species At Risk Act (SARA) where    it is listed as a species of Special Concern (Schedule 1)

Photo by Sandy Dobbyn

Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) 2014

Extrapolated from values reported by Mech and Boitani 2004

Credit: San Diego Zoo Global Library

NORTH AMERICA (Canada and U.S.)

  • 65,000 + individuals
  • > 85 % found in Canada

​                   - Canadian Northwestern Territories & British Columbia holding the largest numbers

  • U.S. wolves number approximately 9,500

​                   - Largely concentrated in Alaska & Minnesota


  • Approximately 32,500 individuals
  • > 61 % in Belarus & Ukraine
  • 4,000 - 5,000 within 23 EU countries, up to 10,000 possible


  • Approximately 81,500 individuals
  • > 61 % in regions encompassing former U.S.S.R.
  • ​Turkey & Mongolia with approximately 10,000 individuals in each country


  • ​Nearly 180,000